Libra 源码分析: 内存池mempool模块解读-1

Libra 内存池(Mempool)模块主要用于缓存未打包的合法交易,该模块和比特币,以太坊源码中的TxPool功能等价,只要包含两个功能:

  1. 接收本地收到的Tx并验证
  2. 和其他节点之间互相同步Tx.

因为Libra使用的是不会分叉的PBFT共识,所以缓冲池的实现以及管理要简单许多.

基本功能

mempool的功能主要是接收来自AC模块的交易,同时和其他节点之间通过网络同步交易.
mempool主要用于保存可能打包的交易,主要是指验证合法的交易(包括签名合法,账户金额足够). 可以简单分类:

  1. 各方面都齐备,可以进入下一块的交易. 主要是seq_number连起来的.
  2. 因为seq_number没有连续不能被打包的交易 (比如当前AccountA的Tx中包含了[2,3,4,7,8]交易,但是5没有,所以[7,8]是不可能被打包的)

同时Libra中也有和以太坊一样的GasPrice概念(功能也一样),因此如果对于同一账号,seq_number相同的情况下,会选择GasPrice高的那个Tx.
根据以上讨论,可以看出实际上Libra唯一的ID可以不认为是交易数据的哈希值,可以把(Address,seq_number)作为唯一的ID,当然这个在比特币以太坊等公链中也行的通.
因为在Libra中把(Address,seq_number)二元组作为Tx唯一的ID,所以其代码设计中对于Tx的管理和以太坊也不太一样.

那么什么是mempool呢?
可以通俗的认为就是一个
HashMap <AccountAddress, BTreeMap<u64, MempoolTransaction>>, 其中这里的u64就是对应账户的seq_number.
其所有功能都是围绕着这个数据结构展开.

mempool的对外接口

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pub trait Mempool {
//主要用于接受来自AC的新增Tx
fn add_transaction_with_validation(&mut self, ctx: ::grpcio::RpcContext, req: super::mempool::AddTransactionWithValidationRequest, sink: ::grpcio::UnarySink<super::mempool::AddTransactionWithValidationResponse>);
//服务于consensus模块,从mempool中获取下一块可以打包的交易
fn get_block(&mut self, ctx: ::grpcio::RpcContext, req: super::mempool::GetBlockRequest, sink: ::grpcio::UnarySink<super::mempool::GetBlockResponse>);
//服务于consensus模块,当交易被打包以后,缓存的相关Tx就可以移除了.
fn commit_transactions(&mut self, ctx: ::grpcio::RpcContext, req: super::mempool::CommitTransactionsRequest, sink: ::grpcio::UnarySink<super::mempool::CommitTransactionsResponse>);
//健康检查,主要是检查缓冲区是否放得下更多Tx
fn health_check(&mut self, ctx: ::grpcio::RpcContext, req: super::mempool::HealthCheckRequest, sink: ::grpcio::UnarySink<super::mempool::HealthCheckResponse>);
}

MempoolService的实现位于mempool/src/mempool_service.rs,这里的实现就是对于grpc接口数据的处理,真正的处理逻辑位于CoreMempool

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#[derive(Clone)]
pub(crate) struct MempoolService {
pub(crate) core_mempool: Arc<Mutex<CoreMempool>>,
}
pub struct Mempool {
// stores metadata of all transactions in mempool (of all states)
transactions: TransactionStore, //这是系统的核心

sequence_number_cache: LruCache<AccountAddress, u64>, //这里保存的是AccountAddress对应的下一个可以打包的Tx对应的seq_number
// temporary DS. TODO: eventually retire it
// for each transaction, entry with timestamp is added when transaction enters mempool
// used to measure e2e latency of transaction in system, as well as time it takes to pick it up
// by consensus
metrics_cache: TtlCache<(AccountAddress, u64), i64>, //这个是为了
//一个交易在缓冲池中不能呆的太久,如果迟迟不能被打包会被定期清理掉.这个时间就是其在缓冲池中呆的最长时间
pub system_transaction_timeout: Duration,
}
/// TransactionStore is in-memory storage for all transactions in mempool
pub struct TransactionStore {
// main DS
transactions: HashMap<AccountAddress, AccountTransactions>, /* 地址=>{seq=>Tx} 二重map,所有收集到的合法的Tx */

// indexes
priority_index: PriorityIndex, /* 按照gas_price,expiration_time,address,
* sequence_number顺序排序的所有可以打包的Tx */
// TTLIndex based on client-specified expiration time
expiration_time_index: TTLIndex, /* 这个过期时间是用户提交的,这个时间虽然是Duration,
* 但是其实也是绝对时间,保存所有合法的Tx */
// TTLIndex based on system expiration time
// we keep it separate from `expiration_time_index` so Mempool can't be clogged
// by old transactions even if it hasn't received commit callbacks for a while
system_ttl_index: TTLIndex, /* 这个时间是由mempool控制,
* 在进入缓冲池的时候会设置成当时的时间加上过期时间,
* 保存所有的合法Tx */
timeline_index: TimelineIndex, /* 里面保存的timeline_id,用于mempool之间的Tx同步,
* 这里面按序保存着可以打包的Tx */
// keeps track of "non-ready" txns (transactions that can't be included in next block)
parking_lot_index: ParkingLotIndex, //暂时不满足条件,不能打包的Tx

// configuration
capacity: usize,
capacity_per_user: usize,
}

接受新的Tx

add_transaction_with_validation中只是简单解析一下参数就很快进入到CoreMempooladd_txn中,我们重点解析一下这个函数.

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/// Used to add a transaction to the Mempool
/// Performs basic validation: checks account's balance and sequence number
pub(crate) fn add_txn(
&mut self,
txn: SignedTransaction,
gas_amount: u64,
db_sequence_number: u64, //已经确认的txn's sender的seq_number
balance: u64,//这个账户的金额
timeline_state: TimelineState,
) -> MempoolAddTransactionStatus {
debug!(
"[Mempool] Adding transaction to mempool: {}:{}",
&txn.sender(),
db_sequence_number
);
println!("signedTransaction:{:?}", txn);
//账户余额都不够付gas费了,直接护额略
if !self.check_balance(&txn, balance, gas_amount) {
return MempoolAddTransactionStatus::InsufficientBalance;
}

let cached_value = self.sequence_number_cache.get_mut(&txn.sender());
let sequence_number = match cached_value {
Some(value) => max(*value, db_sequence_number),
None => db_sequence_number,
};
self.sequence_number_cache
.insert(txn.sender(), sequence_number); //可能sequence_number需要更新了. 如果发生了expiration呢?

// don't accept old transactions (e.g. seq is less than account's current seq_number)
if txn.sequence_number() < sequence_number {
return MempoolAddTransactionStatus::InvalidSeqNumber;
}

//交易在缓冲池中的过期时间
let expiration_time = SystemTime::now()
.duration_since(UNIX_EPOCH)
.expect("init timestamp failure")
+ self.system_transaction_timeout;
self.metrics_cache.insert(
(txn.sender(), txn.sequence_number()),
Utc::now().timestamp_millis(),
Duration::from_secs(100),
);
//MempoolTransaction指的就是在缓冲池中的Tx,为了缓冲池管理方便,增添了过期时间以及TimelineState,还有gasAmount,
//主要是为了索引
let txn_info = MempoolTransaction::new(txn, expiration_time, gas_amount, timeline_state);
//真正的Tx,无论能否立即被打包,都在TransactionStore中保存着
let status = self.transactions.insert(txn_info, sequence_number);
OP_COUNTERS.inc(&format!("insert.{:?}", status));
status
}

remove_transaction 移除已打包交易

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/// This function will be called once the transaction has been stored
/// 共识模块确定Tx被打包了,那么缓冲池中的Tx就可以移除了. is_rejected表示没有被打包
/// 同时is_rejected为false的时候,sequence_number也告诉mempool目前sender之前的Tx都被打包了,
/// 本地的seqence_number也要更新到这里了
pub(crate) fn remove_transaction(
&mut self,
sender: &AccountAddress,
sequence_number: u64,
is_rejected: bool,
) {
debug!(
"[Mempool] Removing transaction from mempool: {}:{}",
sender, sequence_number
);
self.log_latency(sender.clone(), sequence_number, "e2e.latency");
self.metrics_cache.remove(&(*sender, sequence_number));

// update current cached sequence number for account
let cached_value = self
.sequence_number_cache
.remove(sender)
.unwrap_or_default();

let new_sequence_number = if is_rejected {
min(sequence_number, cached_value)
} else {
max(cached_value, sequence_number + 1)
};
//sequence_number_cache保存的就是下一个有效的seq_number
self.sequence_number_cache
.insert(sender.clone(), new_sequence_number);
//核心处理其实还在`TransactionStore`中
self.transactions
.commit_transaction(&sender, sequence_number);
}

为consensus模块提供下一块交易数据

get_block功能非常简单,就是跳出来下一块可以打包的交易,主要就是seq_number连起来的交易.因为不合法的交易早就已经被踢了.

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/// Fetches next block of transactions for consensus
/// `batch_size` - size of requested block
/// `seen_txns` - transactions that were sent to Consensus but were not committed yet
/// Mempool should filter out such transactions
/// 共识模块需要从mempool中拉取下一个块可用的Tx集合
pub(crate) fn get_block(
&mut self,
batch_size: u64,
mut seen: HashSet<TxnPointer>,
) -> Vec<SignedTransaction> {
/*
get_block 实际上是找寻可以进入下一块的交易:
1. 已经送到共识模块中,但是还没有确认(确认后会从缓冲池中移除)
2. 这个Tx的seq刚好就是下一个可以打包的.比如上一块中AccountA的seq是3,那么现在seq=4的Tx就可以进入block
3. 或者当前块中已经包含了seq=4的,那么seq=5的就可以进入
*/
let mut result = vec![];
// Helper DS. Helps to mitigate scenarios where account submits several transactions
// with increasing gas price (e.g. user submits transactions with sequence number 1, 2
// and gas_price 1, 10 respectively)
// Later txn has higher gas price and will be observed first in priority index iterator,
// but can't be executed before first txn. Once observed, such txn will be saved in
// `skipped` DS and rechecked once it's ancestor becomes available
let mut skipped = HashSet::new();

// iterate over the queue of transactions based on gas price
//带标签的break用法
'main: for txn in self.transactions.iter_queue() {
if seen.contains(&TxnPointer::from(txn)) {
continue;
}
let mut seq = txn.sequence_number;
/*
这里打包是按照地址选,尽可能的把同一个地址的Tx都打包到一个block中去
*/
let account_sequence_number = self.sequence_number_cache.get_mut(&txn.address);
let seen_previous = seq > 0 && seen.contains(&(txn.address, seq - 1));
// include transaction if it's "next" for given account or
// we've already sent its ancestor to Consensus
if seen_previous || account_sequence_number == Some(&mut seq) {
let ptr = TxnPointer::from(txn);
seen.insert(ptr);
result.push(ptr);
if (result.len() as u64) == batch_size {
//batch_size表示这块最多有多少个交易
break;
}

// check if we can now include some transactions
// that were skipped before for given account
//这是回头遍历,比如先走过了seq=7的,那么发现seq=6合适的时候,就还可以再把seq=7加入
let mut skipped_txn = (txn.address, seq + 1);
while skipped.contains(&skipped_txn) {
seen.insert(skipped_txn);
result.push(skipped_txn);
if (result.len() as u64) == batch_size {
break 'main;
}
skipped_txn = (txn.address, skipped_txn.1 + 1);
}
} else {
skipped.insert(TxnPointer::from(txn));
}
}
// convert transaction pointers to real values
let block: Vec<_> = result
.into_iter()
//filter_map 行为等于filter & map
.filter_map(|(address, seq)| self.transactions.get(&address, seq))
.collect();
for transaction in &block {
self.log_latency(
transaction.sender(),
transaction.sequence_number(),
"txn_pre_consensus_ms",
);
}
block //就是一个Tx的集合,没有任何附加信息
}

其他几个函数

gc_by_system_ttl: 就是为了清除在mempool中呆的太久的交易,否则mempool因为空间已满而无法进来有效的交易
gc_by_expiration_time: 是在新的一块来临的时候,依据新块时间可以非常确定那些用户指定的在这个之前必须打包的交易必须被清理掉,因为再也不可能被打包了.
read_timeline: 主要用于节点间mempool中的Tx同步用,就是为每一个Tx都给一个本地唯一的单增的编号,这样推送的时候就知道推送到哪里了,避免重复.

下一篇我会讲解TransactionStore,他是维护mempool中Tx的核心数据结构.

本文作者为深入浅出共建者:白振轩, 原文链接-libra的mempool模块解读-1

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