ERC721/ERC1155合约开发与合约安全

  • SharkTeam
  • 更新于 2022-06-02 14:46
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SharkTeam合约安全系列课程之NFT&GameFi开发与安全。第四课,让我们一起来详细聊聊ERC721/ERC1155协议。本文使用的 Openzeppelin 是 4.2.0 版本。

SharkTeam合约安全系列课程之NFT&GameFi开发与安全。第四课,让我们一起来详细聊聊ERC721/ERC1155协议。本文使用的 Openzeppelin 是 4.2.0 版本。

ERC721 合约开发

本文中,将 ERC721 代币分为 4 个部分:

  1. 基本元数据,包括名称 name、符号 symbol、代币资源定位符tokenURI
  2. NFT 基本业务,包括查询、转账、授权 3 种业务。
  3. NFT 发行业务
  4. 其他业务

NFT 元数据

ERC721 基本元数据,包括 namesymbol、代币资源定位符 tokenURI

  • name:NFT 的名称
  • symbol :NFT 的符号表示
  • tokenURI:NFT 的图片资源定位符。

基本元数据是可以访问但不可以修改的,访问接口定义在 IERC20Metadata.sol 文件中。

OpenZeppelin 定义的 IERC20Metadata.sol 代码如下:

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../IERC721.sol";

/**
 * @title ERC-721 Non-Fungible Token Standard, optional metadata extension
 * @dev See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-721
 */
interface IERC721Metadata is IERC721 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection name.
     */
    function name() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the token collection symbol.
     */
    function symbol() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for `tokenId` token.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (string memory);
}

NFT 基本业务

  • 查询业务:

    • 查询当前的账户余额,即 NFT 的数量:balanceOf
  • 转账业务包含2个:

    • 授权转账,即从调用者地址转账:transferFrom
    • 无数据安全授权转账,即从调用者地址转账:safeTransferFrom
    • 带数据安全授权转账,即从已授权地址转账:safeTransferFrom

    转账业务执行成功时需要触发 Transfer 事件。

  • 所有权业务

    • 查询单个 NFT 所有权:ownerOf

    • 单个 NFT 授权业务:

    • 单个 NFT 授权:approve

      当该函数执行成功时,需要触发 Approval 事件

    • 单个 NFT 授权查询:getApproved

    • 账户所有 NFT 授权业务

    • 所有 NFT 授权:setApprovalForAll

      当该函数执行成功时,需要触发 ApprovalForAll 事件

    • 所有 NFT 授权查询:isApprovalForAll

以上基本元数据以及基本业务构成了基本的 ERC721 代币合约,其接口函数定义在 IERC721 接口合约中,接口合约代码如下:

IERC721.sol:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../../utils/introspection/IERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Required interface of an ERC721 compliant contract.
 */
interface IERC721 is IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `tokenId` token is transferred from `from` to `to`.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables `approved` to manage the `tokenId` token.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed approved, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `owner` enables or disables (`approved`) `operator` to manage all of its assets.
     */
    event ApprovalForAll(address indexed owner, address indexed operator, bool approved);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of tokens in ``owner``'s account.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) external view returns (uint256 balance);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the owner of the `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address owner);

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`, checking first that contract recipients
     * are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be have been allowed to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Usage of this method is discouraged, use {safeTransferFrom} whenever possible.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Gives permission to `to` to transfer `tokenId` token to another account.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is transferred.
     *
     * Only a single account can be approved at a time, so approving the zero address clears previous approvals.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The caller must own the token or be an approved operator.
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns the account approved for `tokenId` token.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) external view returns (address operator);

    /**
     * @dev Approve or remove `operator` as an operator for the caller.
     * Operators can call {transferFrom} or {safeTransferFrom} for any token owned by the caller.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The `operator` cannot be the caller.
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool _approved) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns if the `operator` is allowed to manage all of the assets of `owner`.
     *
     * See {setApprovalForAll}
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) external view returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be approved to move this token by either {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external;
}

以上合约还继承了 ERC165 标准的 IERC165 接口,IERC165 代码如下:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC165 standard, as defined in the
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165[EIP].
 *
 * Implementers can declare support of contract interfaces, which can then be
 * queried by others ({ERC165Checker}).
 *
 * For an implementation, see {ERC165}.
 */
interface IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified[EIP section]
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30 000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view returns (bool);
}

ERC165 合约代码如下:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC165} interface.
 *
 * Contracts that want to implement ERC165 should inherit from this contract and override {supportsInterface} to check
 * for the additional interface id that will be supported. For example:
 *
 * ```solidity
 * function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
 *     return interfaceId == type(MyInterface).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * Alternatively, {ERC165Storage} provides an easier to use but more expensive implementation.
 */
abstract contract ERC165 is IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IERC165).interfaceId;
    }
}

ERC165 标准是一种发布并能检测到一个智能合约实现了什么接口的标准,更多信息请参考 EIP165 提案。

Openzeppelin 定义的 ERC721.sol 实现了 IERC721 以及 IERC721Metadata 中定义的接口函数,代码如下:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC721.sol";
import "./IERC721Receiver.sol";
import "./extensions/IERC721Metadata.sol";
import "../../utils/Address.sol";
import "../../utils/Context.sol";
import "../../utils/Strings.sol";
import "../../utils/introspection/ERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-721[ERC721] Non-Fungible Token Standard, including
 * the Metadata extension, but not including the Enumerable extension, which is available separately as
 * {ERC721Enumerable}.
 */
contract ERC721 is Context, ERC165, IERC721, IERC721Metadata {
    using Address for address;
    using Strings for uint256;

    // Token name
    string private _name;

    // Token symbol
    string private _symbol;

    // Mapping from token ID to owner address
    mapping(uint256 => address) private _owners;

    // Mapping owner address to token count
    mapping(address => uint256) private _balances;

    // Mapping from token ID to approved address
    mapping(uint256 => address) private _tokenApprovals;

    // Mapping from owner to operator approvals
    mapping(address => mapping(address => bool)) private _operatorApprovals;

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract by setting a `name` and a `symbol` to the token collection.
     */
    constructor(string memory name_, string memory symbol_) {
        _name = name_;
        _symbol = symbol_;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override(ERC165, IERC165) returns (bool) {
        return
            interfaceId == type(IERC721).interfaceId ||
            interfaceId == type(IERC721Metadata).interfaceId ||
            super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-balanceOf}.
     */
    function balanceOf(address owner) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC721: balance query for the zero address");
        return _balances[owner];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-ownerOf}.
     */
    function ownerOf(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        address owner = _owners[tokenId];
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC721: owner query for nonexistent token");
        return owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-name}.
     */
    function name() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-symbol}.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-tokenURI}.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        require(_exists(tokenId), "ERC721Metadata: URI query for nonexistent token");

        string memory baseURI = _baseURI();
        return bytes(baseURI).length > 0 ? string(abi.encodePacked(baseURI, tokenId.toString())) : "";
    }

    /**
     * @dev Base URI for computing {tokenURI}. If set, the resulting URI for each
     * token will be the concatenation of the `baseURI` and the `tokenId`. Empty
     * by default, can be overriden in child contracts.
     */
    function _baseURI() internal view virtual returns (string memory) {
        return "";
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-approve}.
     */
    function approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) public virtual override {
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);
        require(to != owner, "ERC721: approval to current owner");

        require(
            _msgSender() == owner || isApprovedForAll(owner, _msgSender()),
            "ERC721: approve caller is not owner nor approved for all"
        );

        _approve(to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-getApproved}.
     */
    function getApproved(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (address) {
        require(_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: approved query for nonexistent token");

        return _tokenApprovals[tokenId];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) public virtual override {
        require(operator != _msgSender(), "ERC721: approve to caller");

        _operatorApprovals[_msgSender()][operator] = approved;
        emit ApprovalForAll(_msgSender(), operator, approved);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-isApprovedForAll}.
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address owner, address operator) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return _operatorApprovals[owner][operator];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-transferFrom}.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public virtual override {
        //solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
        require(_isApprovedOrOwner(_msgSender(), tokenId), "ERC721: transfer caller is not owner nor approved");

        _transfer(from, to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) public virtual override {
        safeTransferFrom(from, to, tokenId, "");
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721-safeTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) public virtual override {
        require(_isApprovedOrOwner(_msgSender(), tokenId), "ERC721: transfer caller is not owner nor approved");
        _safeTransfer(from, to, tokenId, _data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely transfers `tokenId` token from `from` to `to`, checking first that contract recipients
     * are aware of the ERC721 protocol to prevent tokens from being forever locked.
     *
     * `_data` is additional data, it has no specified format and it is sent in call to `to`.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to {safeTransferFrom}, and can be used to e.g.
     * implement alternative mechanisms to perform token transfer, such as signature-based.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must exist and be owned by `from`.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _safeTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) internal virtual {
        _transfer(from, to, tokenId);
        require(_checkOnERC721Received(from, to, tokenId, _data), "ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `tokenId` exists.
     *
     * Tokens can be managed by their owner or approved accounts via {approve} or {setApprovalForAll}.
     *
     * Tokens start existing when they are minted (`_mint`),
     * and stop existing when they are burned (`_burn`).
     */
    function _exists(uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (bool) {
        return _owners[tokenId] != address(0);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether `spender` is allowed to manage `tokenId`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function _isApprovedOrOwner(address spender, uint256 tokenId) internal view virtual returns (bool) {
        require(_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: operator query for nonexistent token");
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);
        return (spender == owner || getApproved(tokenId) == spender || isApprovedForAll(owner, spender));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Safely mints `tokenId` and transfers it to `to`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must not exist.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received}, which is called upon a safe transfer.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _safeMint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _safeMint(to, tokenId, "");
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {xref-ERC721-_safeMint-address-uint256-}[`_safeMint`], with an additional `data` parameter which is
     * forwarded in {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} to contract recipients.
     */
    function _safeMint(
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) internal virtual {
        _mint(to, tokenId);
        require(
            _checkOnERC721Received(address(0), to, tokenId, _data),
            "ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer"
        );
    }

    /**
     * @dev Mints `tokenId` and transfers it to `to`.
     *
     * WARNING: Usage of this method is discouraged, use {_safeMint} whenever possible
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must not exist.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _mint(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        require(to != address(0), "ERC721: mint to the zero address");
        require(!_exists(tokenId), "ERC721: token already minted");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(address(0), to, tokenId);

        _balances[to] += 1;
        _owners[tokenId] = to;

        emit Transfer(address(0), to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `tokenId`.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is burned.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _burn(uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        address owner = ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId);

        _beforeTokenTransfer(owner, address(0), tokenId);

        // Clear approvals
        _approve(address(0), tokenId);

        _balances[owner] -= 1;
        delete _owners[tokenId];

        emit Transfer(owner, address(0), tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `tokenId` from `from` to `to`.
     *  As opposed to {transferFrom}, this imposes no restrictions on msg.sender.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `tokenId` token must be owned by `from`.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _transfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) internal virtual {
        require(ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId) == from, "ERC721: transfer of token that is not own");
        require(to != address(0), "ERC721: transfer to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, tokenId);

        // Clear approvals from the previous owner
        _approve(address(0), tokenId);

        _balances[from] -= 1;
        _balances[to] += 1;
        _owners[tokenId] = to;

        emit Transfer(from, to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Approve `to` to operate on `tokenId`
     *
     * Emits a {Approval} event.
     */
    function _approve(address to, uint256 tokenId) internal virtual {
        _tokenApprovals[tokenId] = to;
        emit Approval(ERC721.ownerOf(tokenId), to, tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Internal function to invoke {IERC721Receiver-onERC721Received} on a target address.
     * The call is not executed if the target address is not a contract.
     *
     * @param from address representing the previous owner of the given token ID
     * @param to target address that will receive the tokens
     * @param tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred
     * @param _data bytes optional data to send along with the call
     * @return bool whether the call correctly returned the expected magic value
     */
    function _checkOnERC721Received(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId,
        bytes memory _data
    ) private returns (bool) {
        if (to.isContract()) {
            try IERC721Receiver(to).onERC721Received(_msgSender(), from, tokenId, _data) returns (bytes4 retval) {
                return retval == IERC721Receiver(to).onERC721Received.selector;
            } catch (bytes memory reason) {
                if (reason.length == 0) {
                    revert("ERC721: transfer to non ERC721Receiver implementer");
                } else {
                    assembly {
                        revert(add(32, reason), mload(reason))
                    }
                }
            }
        } else {
            return true;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before any token transfer. This includes minting
     * and burning.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, ``from``'s `tokenId` will be
     * transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `tokenId` will be minted for `to`.
     * - When `to` is zero, ``from``'s `tokenId` will be burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 tokenId
    ) internal virtual {}
}

代码除了接口合约中定义的外部函数外,还包含了代币铸造与销毁函数:

  • 代币铸造函数 _mint
  • 代币安全铸造函数 _safeMint
  • 代币销毁函数 _burn

注意到,这两个函数的类型是 internal,不可以作为外部访问的接口,只能在合约内部以及继承合约中使用。这两个函数主要用于代币的发行,供用户在继承合约中可以直接调用这两个函数自定义代币的发行业务。

NFT 发行业务

在 ERC721 合约中实现了代币铸造和销毁的内部函数,因此,如果需要使用代币的铸造和销毁业务,需要重新定义外部接口,合约代码示例如下:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
   pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

   import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC721/ERC721.sol";
   import "@openzeppelin/contracts/utils/Counters.sol";
   import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
   import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC721/extensions/ERC721URIStorage.sol";

   contract MyNFT is ERC721URIStorage, Ownable {
       using Counters for Counters.Counter;
       Counters.Counter private _tokenIds;

       constructor() ERC721("MyNFT", "NFT") {}

       function mint(address to, string memory tokenURI)
           public onlyOwner
           returns (uint256)
       {
           _tokenIds.increment();

           uint256 newItemId = _tokenIds.current();
           _mint(to, newItemId);
           _setTokenURI(newItemId, tokenURI);

           return newItemId;
       }
   }

ERC721URIStorage.sol 是具有基于存储的代币 URI 管理的 ERC721 代币合约 ,ERC721 中的图像一般保存在了 IPFS 中。ERC721URIStorage.sol 合约代码如下:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../ERC721.sol";

/**
 * @dev ERC721 token with storage based token URI management.
 */
abstract contract ERC721URIStorage is ERC721 {
    using Strings for uint256;

    // Optional mapping for token URIs
    mapping(uint256 => string) private _tokenURIs;

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC721Metadata-tokenURI}.
     */
    function tokenURI(uint256 tokenId) public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        require(_exists(tokenId), "ERC721URIStorage: URI query for nonexistent token");

        string memory _tokenURI = _tokenURIs[tokenId];
        string memory base = _baseURI();

        // If there is no base URI, return the token URI.
        if (bytes(base).length == 0) {
            return _tokenURI;
        }
        // If both are set, concatenate the baseURI and tokenURI (via abi.encodePacked).
        if (bytes(_tokenURI).length > 0) {
            return string(abi.encodePacked(base, _tokenURI));
        }

        return super.tokenURI(tokenId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets `_tokenURI` as the tokenURI of `tokenId`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     */
    function _setTokenURI(uint256 tokenId, string memory _tokenURI) internal virtual {
        require(_exists(tokenId), "ERC721URIStorage: URI set of nonexistent token");
        _tokenURIs[tokenId] = _tokenURI;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `tokenId`.
     * The approval is cleared when the token is burned.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `tokenId` must exist.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _burn(uint256 tokenId) internal virtual override {
        super._burn(tokenId);

        if (bytes(_tokenURIs[tokenId]).length != 0) {
            delete _tokenURIs[tokenId];
        }
    }
}

代币铸造函数 mint 为地址 to 铸造 NFT,需要 onlyOwner 校验,即只有 owner 地址可以铸造 NFT。

代币销毁函数 burn 销毁调用者地址的 NFT,任何地址都可以调用,但只能销毁其自己的 NFT。

注意:

  • 代币铸造和销毁函数的名称,即 mintburn,建议不要修改为一些陌生的名称。因为修改后不方便其他项目的接入,并且项目容易受到黑客的关注。
  • onlyOwner 校验,推荐使用 Openzeppelin 中的 Ownable.sol 合约,或者使用 AccessControl.sol 合约做访问控制和权限校验。

其他业务

ERC721除了以上介绍的代币业务外,根据不同的应用场景,还会有其他的一些业务,比如宠物、纪念品等。

ERC1155 合约开发

元数据

ERC1155 合约只有一个元数据,即 uri,表示

访问接口定义在 IERC1155MetadataURI.sol 文件中。

OpenZeppelin 定义的 IERC1155MetadataURI.sol 代码如下:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../IERC1155.sol";

/**
 * @dev Interface of the optional ERC1155MetadataExtension interface, as defined
 * in the https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1155#metadata-extensions[EIP].
 *
 * _Available since v3.1._
 */
interface IERC1155MetadataURI is IERC1155 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the URI for token type `id`.
     *
     * If the `\{id\}` substring is present in the URI, it must be replaced by
     * clients with the actual token type ID.
     */
    function uri(uint256 id) external view returns (string memory);
}

基本业务

  • 查询业务:

    • 查询账户余额,即 ERC20 代币余额或者 NFT 的数量:balanceOf
    • 批量查询余额,即查询多个账户的 ERC20 代币余额或者 NFT 的数量:balanceOfBatch
  • 转账业务:

    • 带数据安全授权转账,即从已授权地址转账:safeTransferFrom
    • 带数据安全授权批量转账,即从已授权地址进行多个代币(包括 ERC20 代币和 NFT)的转账:safeTransferFrom

    转账业务执行成功时需要触发 Transfer 事件。

  • 所有权业务

    • 代币授权,即对所有的代币进行授权:setApprovalForAll
    • 查询授权,即查询账户是否全部授权:isApprovalForAll

以上元数据以及基本业务构成了基本的 ERC1155 代币合约,其接口定义在了 IERC1155.sol 中,代码如下:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../../utils/introspection/IERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Required interface of an ERC1155 compliant contract, as defined in the
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1155[EIP].
 *
 * _Available since v3.1._
 */
interface IERC1155 is IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens of token type `id` are transferred from `from` to `to` by `operator`.
     */
    event TransferSingle(address indexed operator, address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 id, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Equivalent to multiple {TransferSingle} events, where `operator`, `from` and `to` are the same for all
     * transfers.
     */
    event TransferBatch(
        address indexed operator,
        address indexed from,
        address indexed to,
        uint256[] ids,
        uint256[] values
    );

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `account` grants or revokes permission to `operator` to transfer their tokens, according to
     * `approved`.
     */
    event ApprovalForAll(address indexed account, address indexed operator, bool approved);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the URI for token type `id` changes to `value`, if it is a non-programmatic URI.
     *
     * If an {URI} event was emitted for `id`, the standard
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1155#metadata-extensions[guarantees] that `value` will equal the value
     * returned by {IERC1155MetadataURI-uri}.
     */
    event URI(string value, uint256 indexed id);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens of token type `id` owned by `account`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account, uint256 id) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev xref:ROOT:erc1155.adoc#batch-operations[Batched] version of {balanceOf}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `accounts` and `ids` must have the same length.
     */
    function balanceOfBatch(address[] calldata accounts, uint256[] calldata ids)
        external
        view
        returns (uint256[] memory);

    /**
     * @dev Grants or revokes permission to `operator` to transfer the caller's tokens, according to `approved`,
     *
     * Emits an {ApprovalForAll} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `operator` cannot be the caller.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if `operator` is approved to transfer ``account``'s tokens.
     *
     * See {setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address account, address operator) external view returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `amount` tokens of token type `id` from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * Emits a {TransferSingle} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - If the caller is not `from`, it must be have been approved to spend ``from``'s tokens via {setApprovalForAll}.
     * - `from` must have a balance of tokens of type `id` of at least `amount`.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC1155Receiver-onERC1155Received} and return the
     * acceptance magic value.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 id,
        uint256 amount,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev xref:ROOT:erc1155.adoc#batch-operations[Batched] version of {safeTransferFrom}.
     *
     * Emits a {TransferBatch} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `ids` and `amounts` must have the same length.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC1155Receiver-onERC1155BatchReceived} and return the
     * acceptance magic value.
     */
    function safeBatchTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256[] calldata ids,
        uint256[] calldata amounts,
        bytes calldata data
    ) external;
}

Openzeppelin 定义的 ERC1155.sol 实现了 IERC1155 以及 IERC1155MetadataURI 中定义的接口函数,代码如下:

ERC1155.sol :

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC1155.sol";
import "./IERC1155Receiver.sol";
import "./extensions/IERC1155MetadataURI.sol";
import "../../utils/Address.sol";
import "../../utils/Context.sol";
import "../../utils/introspection/ERC165.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the basic standard multi-token.
 * See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1155
 * Originally based on code by Enjin: https://github.com/enjin/erc-1155
 *
 * _Available since v3.1._
 */
contract ERC1155 is Context, ERC165, IERC1155, IERC1155MetadataURI {
    using Address for address;

    // Mapping from token ID to account balances
    mapping(uint256 => mapping(address => uint256)) private _balances;

    // Mapping from account to operator approvals
    mapping(address => mapping(address => bool)) private _operatorApprovals;

    // Used as the URI for all token types by relying on ID substitution, e.g. https://token-cdn-domain/{id}.json
    string private _uri;

    /**
     * @dev See {_setURI}.
     */
    constructor(string memory uri_) {
        _setURI(uri_);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override(ERC165, IERC165) returns (bool) {
        return
            interfaceId == type(IERC1155).interfaceId ||
            interfaceId == type(IERC1155MetadataURI).interfaceId ||
            super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC1155MetadataURI-uri}.
     *
     * This implementation returns the same URI for *all* token types. It relies
     * on the token type ID substitution mechanism
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1155#metadata[defined in the EIP].
     *
     * Clients calling this function must replace the `\{id\}` substring with the
     * actual token type ID.
     */
    function uri(uint256) public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _uri;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC1155-balanceOf}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account, uint256 id) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC1155: balance query for the zero address");
        return _balances[id][account];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC1155-balanceOfBatch}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `accounts` and `ids` must have the same length.
     */
    function balanceOfBatch(address[] memory accounts, uint256[] memory ids)
        public
        view
        virtual
        override
        returns (uint256[] memory)
    {
        require(accounts.length == ids.length, "ERC1155: accounts and ids length mismatch");

        uint256[] memory batchBalances = new uint256[](accounts.length);

        for (uint256 i = 0; i < accounts.length; ++i) {
            batchBalances[i] = balanceOf(accounts[i], ids[i]);
        }

        return batchBalances;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC1155-setApprovalForAll}.
     */
    function setApprovalForAll(address operator, bool approved) public virtual override {
        require(_msgSender() != operator, "ERC1155: setting approval status for self");

        _operatorApprovals[_msgSender()][operator] = approved;
        emit ApprovalForAll(_msgSender(), operator, approved);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC1155-isApprovedForAll}.
     */
    function isApprovedForAll(address account, address operator) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return _operatorApprovals[account][operator];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC1155-safeTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 id,
        uint256 amount,
        bytes memory data
    ) public virtual override {
        require(
            from == _msgSender() || isApprovedForAll(from, _msgSender()),
            "ERC1155: caller is not owner nor approved"
        );
        _safeTransferFrom(from, to, id, amount, data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC1155-safeBatchTransferFrom}.
     */
    function safeBatchTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256[] memory ids,
        uint256[] memory amounts,
        bytes memory data
    ) public virtual override {
        require(
            from == _msgSender() || isApprovedForAll(from, _msgSender()),
            "ERC1155: transfer caller is not owner nor approved"
        );
        _safeBatchTransferFrom(from, to, ids, amounts, data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers `amount` tokens of token type `id` from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * Emits a {TransferSingle} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `from` must have a balance of tokens of type `id` of at least `amount`.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC1155Receiver-onERC1155Received} and return the
     * acceptance magic value.
     */
    function _safeTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 id,
        uint256 amount,
        bytes memory data
    ) internal virtual {
        require(to != address(0), "ERC1155: transfer to the zero address");

        address operator = _msgSender();

        _beforeTokenTransfer(operator, from, to, _asSingletonArray(id), _asSingletonArray(amount), data);

        uint256 fromBalance = _balances[id][from];
        require(fromBalance >= amount, "ERC1155: insufficient balance for transfer");
        unchecked {
            _balances[id][from] = fromBalance - amount;
        }
        _balances[id][to] += amount;

        emit TransferSingle(operator, from, to, id, amount);

        _doSafeTransferAcceptanceCheck(operator, from, to, id, amount, data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev xref:ROOT:erc1155.adoc#batch-operations[Batched] version of {_safeTransferFrom}.
     *
     * Emits a {TransferBatch} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC1155Receiver-onERC1155BatchReceived} and return the
     * acceptance magic value.
     */
    function _safeBatchTransferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256[] memory ids,
        uint256[] memory amounts,
        bytes memory data
    ) internal virtual {
        require(ids.length == amounts.length, "ERC1155: ids and amounts length mismatch");
        require(to != address(0), "ERC1155: transfer to the zero address");

        address operator = _msgSender();

        _beforeTokenTransfer(operator, from, to, ids, amounts, data);

        for (uint256 i = 0; i < ids.length; ++i) {
            uint256 id = ids[i];
            uint256 amount = amounts[i];

            uint256 fromBalance = _balances[id][from];
            require(fromBalance >= amount, "ERC1155: insufficient balance for transfer");
            unchecked {
                _balances[id][from] = fromBalance - amount;
            }
            _balances[id][to] += amount;
        }

        emit TransferBatch(operator, from, to, ids, amounts);

        _doSafeBatchTransferAcceptanceCheck(operator, from, to, ids, amounts, data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets a new URI for all token types, by relying on the token type ID
     * substitution mechanism
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1155#metadata[defined in the EIP].
     *
     * By this mechanism, any occurrence of the `\{id\}` substring in either the
     * URI or any of the amounts in the JSON file at said URI will be replaced by
     * clients with the token type ID.
     *
     * For example, the `https://token-cdn-domain/\{id\}.json` URI would be
     * interpreted by clients as
     * `https://token-cdn-domain/000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004cce0.json`
     * for token type ID 0x4cce0.
     *
     * See {uri}.
     *
     * Because these URIs cannot be meaningfully represented by the {URI} event,
     * this function emits no events.
     */
    function _setURI(string memory newuri) internal virtual {
        _uri = newuri;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Creates `amount` tokens of token type `id`, and assigns them to `account`.
     *
     * Emits a {TransferSingle} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     * - If `account` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC1155Receiver-onERC1155Received} and return the
     * acceptance magic value.
     */
    function _mint(
        address account,
        uint256 id,
        uint256 amount,
        bytes memory data
    ) internal virtual {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC1155: mint to the zero address");

        address operator = _msgSender();

        _beforeTokenTransfer(operator, address(0), account, _asSingletonArray(id), _asSingletonArray(amount), data);

        _balances[id][account] += amount;
        emit TransferSingle(operator, address(0), account, id, amount);

        _doSafeTransferAcceptanceCheck(operator, address(0), account, id, amount, data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev xref:ROOT:erc1155.adoc#batch-operations[Batched] version of {_mint}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `ids` and `amounts` must have the same length.
     * - If `to` refers to a smart contract, it must implement {IERC1155Receiver-onERC1155BatchReceived} and return the
     * acceptance magic value.
     */
    function _mintBatch(
        address to,
        uint256[] memory ids,
        uint256[] memory amounts,
        bytes memory data
    ) internal virtual {
        require(to != address(0), "ERC1155: mint to the zero address");
        require(ids.length == amounts.length, "ERC1155: ids and amounts length mismatch");

        address operator = _msgSender();

        _beforeTokenTransfer(operator, address(0), to, ids, amounts, data);

        for (uint256 i = 0; i < ids.length; i++) {
            _balances[ids[i]][to] += amounts[i];
        }

        emit TransferBatch(operator, address(0), to, ids, amounts);

        _doSafeBatchTransferAcceptanceCheck(operator, address(0), to, ids, amounts, data);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `amount` tokens of token type `id` from `account`
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `account` must have at least `amount` tokens of token type `id`.
     */
    function _burn(
        address account,
        uint256 id,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC1155: burn from the zero address");

        address operator = _msgSender();

        _beforeTokenTransfer(operator, account, address(0), _asSingletonArray(id), _asSingletonArray(amount), "");

        uint256 accountBalance = _balances[id][account];
        require(accountBalance >= amount, "ERC1155: burn amount exceeds balance");
        unchecked {
            _balances[id][account] = accountBalance - amount;
        }

        emit TransferSingle(operator, account, address(0), id, amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev xref:ROOT:erc1155.adoc#batch-operations[Batched] version of {_burn}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `ids` and `amounts` must have the same length.
     */
    function _burnBatch(
        address account,
        uint256[] memory ids,
        uint256[] memory amounts
    ) internal virtual {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC1155: burn from the zero address");
        require(ids.length == amounts.length, "ERC1155: ids and amounts length mismatch");

        address operator = _msgSender();

        _beforeTokenTransfer(operator, account, address(0), ids, amounts, "");

        for (uint256 i = 0; i < ids.length; i++) {
            uint256 id = ids[i];
            uint256 amount = amounts[i];

            uint256 accountBalance = _balances[id][account];
            require(accountBalance >= amount, "ERC1155: burn amount exceeds balance");
            unchecked {
                _balances[id][account] = accountBalance - amount;
            }
        }

        emit TransferBatch(operator, account, address(0), ids, amounts);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before any token transfer. This includes minting
     * and burning, as well as batched variants.
     *
     * The same hook is called on both single and batched variants. For single
     * transfers, the length of the `id` and `amount` arrays will be 1.
     *
     * Calling conditions (for each `id` and `amount` pair):
     *
     * - When `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens
     * of token type `id` will be  transferred to `to`.
     * - When `from` is zero, `amount` tokens of token type `id` will be minted
     * for `to`.
     * - when `to` is zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens of token type `id`
     * will be burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     * - `ids` and `amounts` have the same, non-zero length.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(
        address operator,
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256[] memory ids,
        uint256[] memory amounts,
        bytes memory data
    ) internal virtual {}

    function _doSafeTransferAcceptanceCheck(
        address operator,
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 id,
        uint256 amount,
        bytes memory data
    ) private {
        if (to.isContract()) {
            try IERC1155Receiver(to).onERC1155Received(operator, from, id, amount, data) returns (bytes4 response) {
                if (response != IERC1155Receiver(to).onERC1155Received.selector) {
                    revert("ERC1155: ERC1155Receiver rejected tokens");
                }
            } catch Error(string memory reason) {
                revert(reason);
            } catch {
                revert("ERC1155: transfer to non ERC1155Receiver implementer");
            }
        }
    }

    function _doSafeBatchTransferAcceptanceCheck(
        address operator,
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256[] memory ids,
        uint256[] memory amounts,
        bytes memory data
    ) private {
        if (to.isContract()) {
            try IERC1155Receiver(to).onERC1155BatchReceived(operator, from, ids, amounts, data) returns (
                bytes4 response
            ) {
                if (response != IERC1155Receiver(to).onERC1155BatchReceived.selector) {
                    revert("ERC1155: ERC1155Receiver rejected tokens");
                }
            } catch Error(string memory reason) {
                revert(reason);
            } catch {
                revert("ERC1155: transfer to non ERC1155Receiver implementer");
            }
        }
    }

    function _asSingletonArray(uint256 element) private pure returns (uint256[] memory) {
        uint256[] memory array = new uint256[](1);
        array[0] = element;

        return array;
    }
}

代码中除了接口合约中定义的外部函数外,还包含了代币铸造与销毁函数:

  • 代币铸造函数 _mint
  • 代币批量铸造函数 _mintBatch
  • 代币销毁函数 _burn
  • 代币批量销毁函数 _burnBatch

注意到,这4个函数的类型是 internal,不可以作为外部访问的接口,只能在合约内部以及继承合约中使用。这4个函数主要用于代币的发行,供用户在继承合约中可以直接调用这两个函数自定义代币的发行业务。

代币发行业务

在 ERC1155 合约中实现了代币铸造和销毁的内部函数,因此,如果需要使用代币的铸造和销毁业务,需要重新定义外部函数,类似于 ERC20 和 ERC721。

其他业务

ERC1155 协议是 ERC20 协议和 ERC721 协议的升级版本,其功能兼容了 ERC20 代币以及ERC721协议的NFT,同时还具有批量处理的功能。因此,ERC1155协议非常使用与 NFT 和 GameFi 项目。可以基于 ERC1155 实现其他的一些业务,比如卡牌抽取、合成等。

合约安全

NFT 和 GameFi 项目因其与 DeFi 项目不同的特性,除了常见的如整数溢出、重入等漏洞外,还有一些与其业务特性相关的特殊漏洞,比如因随机性和合约调用引起的回退漏洞。

回退漏洞

以 CryptoZoan 项目不公平孵蛋为例。

CryptoZoan 在币安智能链 (BSC)上以NFT游戏的玩法和体验为重点,旨在创建一个与区块链和游戏相结合的新金融系统,使用户在进行游戏的同事,赚取收益。该游戏通过加入随机性的机制来增强用户体验,用户可以将游戏中的“蛋”进行孵化,ZOAN 随机拥有一个稀有度等级,ZOAN 终生依附于这个稀有度等级,总共有6个等级,等级越高,价值越高。攻击者利用随机性与回退的结合,使得攻击者的孵化请求得到想要的结果(Level 6),破坏游戏的公平性,使得攻击者获得最高收益。

攻击过程如下:

(1)将待孵化的蛋部署在攻击合约;

(2)调用攻击合约触发 evolveEgg(uint256) 函数;

(3)检查稀有度,如果等级太低则进行回滚;(可能会消耗Gas费用,需要去权衡选择是否继续。)

(4)取出高等级的宠物。

根据攻击原理,我们提出以下安全建议:

对于返回值和随机性有关的函数,限制其调用者账户只能是外部账户(External Owned Account,EOA),不能是合约账户,建议使用 Openzeppelin 中的 isContract() 对调用地址是否为合约进行判断。

三明治攻击

区块链的透明度、以及执行订单的延迟(往往在网络拥堵情况下),使抢先交易更加容易,并极大降低了交易的安全性。攻击者(或者我们叫他掠夺性交易员)会找到一个待处理的受害者交易,然后试图通过前后的交易夹击该受害者。这种策略来源于买卖资产从而操作资产价格的方法。

所有区块链交易都可在内存池(mempool)中查到。一旦掠夺性交易者注意到潜在受害者的待定资产X交易被用于资产Y,他们就会在受害者之前购买资产Y。掠夺性交易者知道受害者的交易将提高资产的价格,从而计划以较低的价格购买Y资产,让受害者以较高的价格购买,最后再以较高的价格出售资产。

以 Polkamonster 为例,攻击流程如下:

(1)被攻击者发现攻击合约的 NFT 比较便宜,以正常的 gas 价格发起请求进行购买,该交易进入 mempool 中;

(2)攻击者发现有人购买他的宠物,立即以一笔更高 gas 价格的交易来更新宠物价格;

(3)在真正执行被攻击者交易时,按照更新后的高价格进行购买。

攻击导致受害者的地址余额被清空,损失很大。而对于攻击者来说,如果攻击不成功也只是付出少量的 gas 费用而已。

安全建议:更新价格的操作,需要有一个快的冷却时间;在购买时将当时的价格作为参数;用户只要 approve 本次需要的数量即可,不要每次都 approve max。

关于我们

SharkTeam的愿景是全面保护Web3世界的安全。团队成员分布在北京、南京、苏州、硅谷,由来自世界各地的经验丰富的安全专业人士和高级研究人员组成,精通区块链和智能合约的底层理论,提供包括威胁建模、智能合约审计、应急响应等在内的综合服务。已与区块链生态系统各个领域的关键参与者,如Huobi Global、OKC、polygon、Polkadot、imToken、ChainIDE等建立长期合作关系。

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