Web3学习之使用Foundry开发部署和开源ERC20合约

Web3学习之使用Foundry开发部署和开源ERC20合约Foundry是一个用于以太坊应用程序开发的快速、可移植和模块化的工具包,用Rust编写。Foundry由以下部分组成:Forge:以太坊测试框架(类似于Truffle、Hardhat和DappTools)。Cast:与EVM智

Web3学习之使用Foundry开发部署和开源ERC20合约

Foundry 是一个用于以太坊应用程序开发的快速、可移植和模块化的工具包,用Rust编写。

Foundry由以下部分组成:

  • Forge:以太坊测试框架(类似于Truffle、Hardhat和DappTools)。
  • Cast:与EVM智能合约、发送交易和获取链数据交互的瑞士军刀。
  • Anvil:类似于Ganache、Hardhat Network的本地以太坊节点。
  • Chisel:快速、实用且详细的solidity REPL。

Foundry

Foundry is a blazing fast, portable and modular toolkit for Ethereum application development written in Rust.

Foundry consists of:

  • Forge: Ethereum testing framework (like Truffle, Hardhat and DappTools).
  • Cast: Swiss army knife for interacting with EVM smart contracts, sending transactions and getting chain data.
  • Anvil: Local Ethereum node, akin to Ganache, Hardhat Network.
  • Chisel: Fast, utilitarian, and verbose solidity REPL.

Documentation

<https://book.getfoundry.sh/>

Usage

Build

forge build

Test

forge test

Format

forge fmt

Gas Snapshots

forge snapshot

Anvil

anvil

Deploy

forge script script/Counter.s.sol:CounterScript --rpc-url &lt;your_rpc_url> --private-key &lt;your_private_key>

Cast

cast &lt;subcommand>

Help

forge --help
anvil --help
cast --help

实操

安装Foundry

curl -L https://foundry.paradigm.xyz | bash

foundryup

创建项目

forge init MyToken
cd MyToken

编写合约

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity 0.8.20;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20.sol";

contract MyToken is ERC20 {
    constructor(
        string memory name_,
        string memory symbol_
    ) ERC20(name_, symbol_) {
        _mint(msg.sender, 1e10 * 1e18);
    }
}

安装依赖

forge install OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts
forge install OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts --no-commit

依赖映射

forge remappings > remappings.txt

编写测试脚本

// SPDX-License-Identifier: UNLICENSED
pragma solidity ^0.8.13;

import {Test, console} from "forge-std/Test.sol";
import {MyToken} from "../src/MyToken.sol";

contract MyTokenTest is Test {
    MyToken public mytoken;

    address public owner = address(0x123);
    address public alice = address(0x456);
    uint256 public totalSupply = 1e10 * 1e18;

    function setUp() public {
        mytoken = new MyToken("MyToken", "MTK");
        console.log("Setup complete");
    }

    function testBalance() public view {
        assertEq(mytoken.balanceOf(owner), 0);
        assertEq(mytoken.balanceOf(alice), 0);
        assertEq(mytoken.balanceOf(address(this)), totalSupply);
    }

    function testTransfer() public {
        mytoken.transfer(alice, 100);
        assertEq(mytoken.balanceOf(owner), 0);
        assertEq(mytoken.balanceOf(alice), 100);
    }

    function testName() public view {
        assertEq(mytoken.name(), "MyToken");
    }
    function testSymbol() public view {
        assertEq(mytoken.symbol(), "MTK");
    }
    function testDecimals() public view {
        assertEq(mytoken.decimals(), 18);
    }
    function testTotalSupply() public view {
        assertEq(mytoken.totalSupply(), totalSupply);
    }
}

构建与测试

forge build
forge test -vvvv

编写部署脚本

// SPDX-License-Identifier: UNLICENSED
pragma solidity ^0.8.13;

import {Script, console} from "forge-std/Script.sol";
import {MyToken} from "../src/MyToken.sol";

contract MyTokenScript is Script {
    MyToken public mytoken;

    function setUp() public {}

    function run() public {
        uint256 deployerPrivateKey = vm.envUint("PRIVATE_KEY");
        vm.startBroadcast(deployerPrivateKey);

        mytoken = new MyToken("MyToken", "MTK");

        console.log("MyToken deployed to:", address(mytoken));

        vm.stopBroadcast();
    }
}

部署合约

1. 创建 .env 文件

touch .env

文件内容

SEPOLIA_RPC_URL=
PRIVATE_KEY=
ETHERSCAN_API_KEY=

2. 修改 foundry.toml 文件,增加如下内容

solc = "0.8.20"
[rpc_endpoints]
sepolia = "${SEPOLIA_RPC_URL}"

[etherscan]
sepolia = { key = "${ETHERSCAN_API_KEY}" }

3. 部署合约

source .env
forge script --chain sepolia script/MyToken.s.sol --rpc-url $SEPOLIA_RPC_URL --broadcast --verify -vvvv

4. 报错解决

问题一:

报错error: a value is required for '--fork-url &lt;URL>' but none was supplied 原因:.env 文件中环境变量等号后有空格SEPOLIA_RPC_URL= http...

image.png

解决: 删除 .env 文件中环境变量等号后的空格 <https://github.com/Cyfrin/foundry-full-course-cu/discussions/216>

问题二: 报错:script failed: failed parsing $PRIVATE_KEY as typeuint256: missing hex prefix ("0x") for hex string

image-1.png

解决:将 PRIVATE_KEY 值改为 0x 开头

5. 成功部署

OpenSpace-S3-code/W2D4/MyToken on  main [⇡✘!+?] via 🅒 base took 8.6s 
➜ forge script --chain sepolia script/MyToken.s.sol:MyTokenScript --rpc-url $SEPOLIA_RPC_URL --broadcast --verify -vvvv  

[⠊] Compiling...
No files changed, compilation skipped
Traces:
  [502914] MyTokenScript::run()
    ├─ [0] VM::envUint("PRIVATE_KEY") [staticcall]
    │   └─ ← [Return] &lt;env var value>
    ├─ [0] VM::startBroadcast(&lt;pk>)
    │   └─ ← [Return] 
    ├─ [457806] → new MyToken@0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20
    │   ├─ emit Transfer(from: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000, to: 0x750Ea21c1e98CcED0d4557196B6f4a5974CCB6f5, value: 10000000000000000000000000000 [1e28])
    │   └─ ← [Return] 1824 bytes of code
    ├─ [0] console::log("MyToken deployed to:", MyToken: [0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20]) [staticcall]
    │   └─ ← [Stop] 
    ├─ [0] VM::stopBroadcast()
    │   └─ ← [Return] 
    └─ ← [Stop] 

Script ran successfully.

== Logs ==
  MyToken deployed to: 0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20

## Setting up 1 EVM.
==========================
Simulated On-chain Traces:

  [457806] → new MyToken@0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20
    ├─ emit Transfer(from: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000, to: 0x750Ea21c1e98CcED0d4557196B6f4a5974CCB6f5, value: 10000000000000000000000000000 [1e28])
    └─ ← [Return] 1824 bytes of code

==========================

Chain 11155111

Estimated gas price: 45.399486877 gwei

Estimated total gas used for script: 725574

Estimated amount required: 0.032940687291292398 ETH

==========================

##### sepolia
✅  [Success]Hash: 0xf1656b037f8c69b27bc6b991dac153957d46cbe7f5e046208ce01ec8bbfb0f6c
Contract Address: 0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20
Block: 6283206
Paid: 0.012347370703835136 ETH (558336 gas * 22.114588176 gwei)

✅ Sequence #1 on sepolia | Total Paid: 0.012347370703835136 ETH (558336 gas * avg 22.114588176 gwei)

==========================

ONCHAIN EXECUTION COMPLETE & SUCCESSFUL.
##
Start verification for (1) contracts
Start verifying contract `0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20` deployed on sepolia

Submitting verification for [src/MyToken.sol:MyToken] 0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20.

Submitting verification for [src/MyToken.sol:MyToken] 0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20.

Submitting verification for [src/MyToken.sol:MyToken] 0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20.

Submitting verification for [src/MyToken.sol:MyToken] 0xB8c3c8AE6cEb874C472e3aeb5CCBb15c82Aa5B20.
Submitted contract for verification:
        Response: `OK`
        GUID: `jzrzcfi55na1d9vvqmik5khmhskqa2ekyyclzu43ryxudku2yk`
        URL: https://sepolia.etherscan.io/address/0xb8c3c8ae6ceb874c472e3aeb5ccbb15c82aa5b20
Contract verification status:
Response: `NOTOK`
Details: `Pending in queue`
Contract verification status:
Response: `OK`
Details: `Pass - Verified`
Contract successfully verified
All (1) contracts were verified!

Transactions saved to: /Users/qiaopengjun/Code/solidity-code/OpenSpace-S3-code/W2D4/MyToken/broadcast/MyToken.s.sol/11155111/run-latest.json

Sensitive values saved to: /Users/qiaopengjun/Code/solidity-code/OpenSpace-S3-code/W2D4/MyToken/cache/MyToken.s.sol/11155111/run-latest.json

OpenSpace-S3-code/W2D4/MyToken on  main [⇡✘!+?] via 🅒 base took 1m 0.9s 
➜ 
部署后的合约链接地址

<https://sepolia.etherscan.io/address/0xb8c3c8ae6ceb874c472e3aeb5ccbb15c82aa5b20>

image-2.png

参考

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QiaoPengjun(乔鹏军)
QiaoPengjun(乔鹏军)
0x750E...B6f5
不要放弃,如果你喜欢这件事,就不要放弃。如果你不喜欢,那这也不好,因为一个人不应该做自己不喜欢的事。